Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Sharks with Friggin' "LAZERS"!!!


Wireshark Filters::


wireshark-filter - Wireshark filter syntax and reference


wireshark [other options] [ -R "filter expression" ]

tshark [other options] [ -R "filter expression" ]


Wireshark and TShark share a powerful filter engine that helps remove the noise from a packet trace and lets you see only the packets that interest you. If a packet meets the requirements expressed in your filter, then it is displayed in the list of packets. Display filters let you compare the fields within a protocol against a specific value, compare fields against fields, and check the existence of specified fields or protocols.

Filters are also used by other features such as statistics generation and packet list colorization (the latter is only available to Wireshark). This manual page describes their syntax and provides a comprehensive reference of filter fields.


Check whether a field or protocol exists

The simplest filter allows you to check for the existence of a protocol or field. If you want to see all packets which contain the IP protocol, the filter would be "ip" (without the quotation marks). To see all packets that contain a Token-Ring RIF field, use "tr.rif".

Think of a protocol or field in a filter as implicitly having the "exists" operator.

Note: all protocol and field names that are available in Wireshark and TShark filters are listed in the comprehensive FILTER PROTOCOL REFERENCE (see below).

Comparison operators

Fields can also be compared against values. The comparison operators can be expressed either through English-like abbreviations or through C-like symbols:

eq, == Equal
ne, != Not Equal
gt, > Greater Than
lt, < Less Than ge, >= Greater than or Equal to
le, <= Less than or Equal to Search and match operators Additional operators exist expressed only in English, not C-like syntax: contains Does the protocol, field or slice contain a value matches Does the protocol or text string match the given Perl regular expression The "contains" operator allows a filter to search for a sequence of characters, expressed as a string (quoted or unquoted), or bytes, expressed as a byte array. For example, to search for a given HTTP URL in a capture, the following filter can be used: http contains "http://www.wireshark.org"; The "contains" operator cannot be used on atomic fields, such as numbers or IP addresses. The "matches" operator allows a filter to apply to a specified Perl-compatible regular expression (PCRE). The "matches" operator is only implemented for protocols and for protocol fields with a text string representation. For example, to search for a given WAP WSP User-Agent, you can write: wsp.user_agent matches "(?i)cldc" This example shows an interesting PCRE feature: pattern match options have to be specified with the (?option) construct. For instance, (?i) performs a case-insensitive pattern match. More information on PCRE can be found in the pcrepattern(3) man page (Perl Regular Expressions are explained in http://www.perldoc.com/perl5.8.0/pod/perlre.html). Note: the "matches" operator is only available if Wireshark or TShark have been compiled with the PCRE library. This can be checked by running: wireshark -v tshark -v or selecting the "About Wireshark" item from the "Help" menu in Wireshark. Functions The filter language has the following functions: upper(string-field) - converts a string field to uppercase lower(string-field) - converts a string field to lowercase upper() and lower() are useful for performing case-insensitive string comparisons. For example: upper(ncp.nds_stream_name) contains "MACRO" lower(mount.dump.hostname) == "angel" Protocol field types Each protocol field is typed. The types are: Unsigned integer (8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, or 32-bit) Signed integer (8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, or 32-bit) Boolean Ethernet address (6 bytes) Byte array IPv4 address IPv6 address IPX network number Text string Double-precision floating point number An integer may be expressed in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal notation. The following three display filters are equivalent: frame.pkt_len > 10
frame.pkt_len > 012
frame.pkt_len > 0xa

Boolean values are either true or false. In a display filter expression testing the value of a Boolean field, "true" is expressed as 1 or any other non-zero value, and "false" is expressed as zero. For example, a token-ring packet's source route field is Boolean. To find any source-routed packets, a display filter would be:

tr.sr == 1

Non source-routed packets can be found with:

tr.sr == 0

Ethernet addresses and byte arrays are represented by hex digits. The hex digits may be separated by colons, periods, or hyphens:

eth.dst eq ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
aim.data == 0.1.0.d
fddi.src == aa-aa-aa-aa-aa-aa
echo.data == 7a

IPv4 addresses can be represented in either dotted decimal notation or by using the hostname:

ip.dst eq www.mit.edu
ip.src ==

IPv4 addresses can be compared with the same logical relations as numbers: eq, ne, gt, ge, lt, and le. The IPv4 address is stored in host order, so you do not have to worry about the endianness of an IPv4 address when using it in a display filter.

Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR) notation can be used to test if an IPv4 address is in a certain subnet. For example, this display filter will find all packets in the 129.111 Class-B network:

ip.addr ==

Remember, the number after the slash represents the number of bits used to represent the network. CIDR notation can also be used with hostnames, as in this example of finding IP addresses on the same Class C network as 'sneezy':

ip.addr eq sneezy/24

The CIDR notation can only be used on IP addresses or hostnames, not in variable names. So, a display filter like "ip.src/24 == ip.dst/24" is not valid (yet).

IPX networks are represented by unsigned 32-bit integers. Most likely you will be using hexadecimal when testing IPX network values:

ipx.src.net == 0xc0a82c00

Strings are enclosed in double quotes:

http.request.method == "POST"

Inside double quotes, you may use a backslash to embed a double quote or an arbitrary byte represented in either octal or hexadecimal.

browser.comment == "An embedded \" double-quote"

Use of hexadecimal to look for "HEAD":

http.request.method == "\x48EAD"

Use of octal to look for "HEAD":

http.request.method == "\110EAD"

This means that you must escape backslashes with backslashes inside double quotes.

smb.path contains "\\\\SERVER\\SHARE"

looks for \\SERVER\SHARE in "smb.path".

The slice operator

You can take a slice of a field if the field is a text string or a byte array. For example, you can filter on the vendor portion of an ethernet address (the first three bytes) like this:

eth.src[0:3] == 00:00:83

Another example is:

http.content_type[0:4] == "text"

You can use the slice operator on a protocol name, too. The "frame" protocol can be useful, encompassing all the data captured by Wireshark or TShark.

token[0:5] ne
llc[0] eq aa
frame[100-199] contains "wireshark"

The following syntax governs slices:

[i:j] i = start_offset, j = length
[i-j] i = start_offset, j = end_offset, inclusive.
[i] i = start_offset, length = 1
[:j] start_offset = 0, length = j
[i:] start_offset = i, end_offset = end_of_field

Offsets can be negative, in which case they indicate the offset from the end of the field. The last byte of the field is at offset -1, the last but one byte is at offset -2, and so on. Here's how to check the last four bytes of a frame:

frame[-4:4] ==


frame[-4:] ==

You can concatenate slices using the comma operator:

ftp[1,3-5,9:] == 01:03:04:05:09:0a:0b

This concatenates offset 1, offsets 3-5, and offset 9 to the end of the ftp data.

Type conversions

If a field is a text string or a byte array, it can be expressed in whichever way is most convenient.

So, for instance, the following filters are equivalent:

http.request.method == "GET"
http.request.method == 47.45.54

A range can also be expressed in either way:

frame[60:2] gt 50.51
frame[60:2] gt "PQ"

Bit field operations

It is also possible to define tests with bit field operations. Currently the following bit field operation is supported:

bitwise_and, & Bitwise AND

The bitwise AND operation allows testing to see if one or more bits are set. Bitwise AND operates on integer protocol fields and slices.

When testing for TCP SYN packets, you can write:

tcp.flags & 0x02

That expression will match all packets that contain a "tcp.flags" field with the 0x02 bit, i.e. the SYN bit, set.

Similarly, filtering for all WSP GET and extended GET methods is achieved with:

wsp.pdu_type & 0x40

When using slices, the bit mask must be specified as a byte string, and it must have the same number of bytes as the slice itself, as in:

ip[42:2] & 40:ff

Logical expressions

Tests can be combined using logical expressions. These too are expressable in C-like syntax or with English-like abbreviations:

and, && Logical AND
or, || Logical OR
not, ! Logical NOT

Expressions can be grouped by parentheses as well. The following are all valid display filter expressions:

tcp.port == 80 and ip.src ==
not llc
http and frame[100-199] contains "wireshark"
(ipx.src.net == 0xbad && ipx.src.node == || ip

Remember that whenever a protocol or field name occurs in an expression, the "exists" operator is implicitly called. The "exists" operator has the highest priority. This means that the first filter expression must be read as "show me the packets for which tcp.port exists and equals 80, and ip.src exists and equals". The second filter expression means "show me the packets where not (llc exists)", or in other words "where llc does not exist" and hence will match all packets that do not contain the llc protocol. The third filter expression includes the constraint that offset 199 in the frame exists, in other words the length of the frame is at least 200.

A special caveat must be given regarding fields that occur more than once per packet. "ip.addr" occurs twice per IP packet, once for the source address, and once for the destination address. Likewise, "tr.rif.ring" fields can occur more than once per packet. The following two expressions are not equivalent:

ip.addr ne
not ip.addr eq

The first filter says "show me packets where an ip.addr exists that does not equal". That is, as long as one ip.addr in the packet does not equal, the packet passes the display filter. The other ip.addr could equal and the packet would still be displayed. The second filter says "don't show me any packets that have an ip.addr field equal to". If one ip.addr is, the packet does not pass. If neither ip.addr field is, then the packet is displayed.

It is easy to think of the 'ne' and 'eq' operators as having an implicit "exists" modifier when dealing with multiply-recurring fields. "ip.addr ne" can be thought of as "there exists an ip.addr that does not equal". "not ip.addr eq" can be thought of as "there does not exist an ip.addr equal to".

Be careful with multiply-recurring fields; they can be confusing.

Care must also be taken when using the display filter to remove noise from the packet trace. If, for example, you want to filter out all IP multicast packets to address, then using:

ip.dst ne

may be too restrictive. Filtering with "ip.dst" selects only those IP packets that satisfy the rule. Any other packets, including all non-IP packets, will not be displayed. To display the non-IP packets as well, you can use one of the following two expressions:

not ip or ip.dst ne
not ip.addr eq

The first filter uses "not ip" to include all non-IP packets and then lets "ip.dst ne" filter out the unwanted IP packets. The second filter has already been explained above where filtering with multiply occuring fields was discussed.


Each entry below provides an abbreviated protocol or field name. Every one of these fields can be used in a display filter. The type of the field is also given.

Unable to generate filter documentation (Please refer to http://www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref/)


The wireshark-filters manpage is part of the Wireshark distribution. The latest version of Wireshark can be found at http://www.wireshark.org.

Regular expressions in the "matches" operator are provided with libpcre, the Perl-Compatible Regular Expressions library: see http://www.pcre.org/.

This manpage does not describe the capture filter syntax, which is different. See the manual page of pcap-filter(4) or, if that doesn't exist, tcpdump(8), or, if that doesn't exist, http://wiki.wireshark.org/CaptureFilters for a description of capture filters.


wireshark(1), tshark(1), editcap(1), pcap-filter(4), tcpdump(8), pcap(3)


See the list of authors in the Wireshark man page for a list of authors of that code.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

A background on my paranoia

I've worked in some pretty cool places, and I've seen way to much info that points to dedicated, aggressive, information collection/propaganda creation put into action by the US Army. The Army doesn't even have all the cool shit, the spooks do. I've seen a few unspeakable acts, and no, it doesn't involve anyone dying, although I've had more than my fair share of carnage, probably more than your average grunt.

Even though our government actively scans us, and has plenty of Carnivores doing their business, the US Army seems to be totally unaware of the basics of network security. I might have been just a "grunt" type, but I managed to find and patch a few holes in my unit, hopefully keeping some plans out of the many civilians and enemies hands right outside our gates.

I may not be proud of why we were there, but I know I fought with honor, and I helped open a few "commo" guy's minds. Just remember to keep quite and encrypted on the net as much as possible, you never know who is listening.

So I just got a laptop....

Got a laptop the other day for school. My budget was about $600, and I chose the HP dv5. It's a later revision, so I'm hoping that it will be less problematic then some of the earlier models. I was ecstatic to be able to get a Core i3 for sub $550, although it does seem to lag every now and again, that may be the 3GB RAM on Winblows 7 x64. I've been putting it through the paces though, and it seems to be sufficient.  I think the amount of bloatware on it from HP has something to do with it as well. I've notice HP has their own media player, which it defaults to for music and movies. I don't like it, WMP is shit anyways, but I'd rather use that than this HP garbage they put on here, Mplayer will be on shortly to say the least. You can't even seek through a song. How idiotic is that. I mean, if you have a DJ set, or an Opera you want to listen to, and lets say you like a particular stanza, how am I supposed to get there? Then again, I didn't RTFM for this program, as it just seems like junk to me. I'll stick with open-source solutions, thank you. (Which is ironic, using a winblows system)

One thing I really like is the GOBI chip. Even though it doesn't help my paranoia at all (extremely paranoid, lol, thank you Dept. of Defense, and 4th branch of gov't). Bad thing is though, you need to subscribe to at least 1 month of service before the GPS is enabled. I guess I'll be getting a prepaid cc here soon. Since I've only had it 3 days, I am still getting used to things such as the mousepad (scrolling sucks, for sure, I plan on using a mouse though), and in Linux, it doesn't recognize any right clicks, at all.You don't realize how bad the macfags have it until you can't right click. I'm still trying to figure out how this whole GOBI thing works, because, admittedly, I'm a little behind on hardware. I'm hoping to turn this into a nice little rig though, upping the 3GB RAM to 6-8, maybe getting a bigger HDD. The wireless seems to be compatible with a lot of programs I use for wardriving, etc.... I would like to get the cell net up, but I'll have to wait for anyone reading this to make me some ad revenue first, lol. Then again, there's that whole cell phone, gps tracking, paranoia thing again. (I'll have to explain that later, I'm not crazy, I just know too much, lol)